One of the very common medical problems is low back pain. Lower back pain is pain felt and travels in the ribs particularly in the back or in the upper part of legs. This pain starts suddenly and could be the follow up of strain or an injury. Sometimes the pain may not have anatomical cause. Sit up or turn over posture may be difficult and the worse could be bending or sitting. Even a sneeze or a cough can be painful.
Back pain normally gets resolved within weeks but the pain undergone by the patients is unbearable. Conservational treatments are normally taken for lower back pain since it is temporary and slowly resolve with time.
For a speedy recovery, proper treatment has to be started only after knowing the exact cause for its occurrence. The main reason for lower back pain can be Lumbar muscle strain and ruptured disc or herniated disc. Disc damage in the inter vertebral column leads to Discogenic lower back pain and this could be diagnosed using discogram. But this in no way relates to herniated disc where the back gets pressed to the nerve. Aging population come across Spinal stenosis as the spinal canal is thinned. This may happen due to arthritis or any other specific conditions. Any joint ache is termed arthritis and particularly on the spine creates lower back pain.
Spinal stenosis causes back pain in the aging population. As we age, the spinal canal can become constricted, due in part to arthritis and other conditions. If the spinal canal becomes too tight, back pain can be the result. Spondylolisthesis occurs due to the instability of adjacent vertebras which start to slip. This results in unstable spine and ends in lower back pain. Osteoporosis Leads to many orthopedic complications and is mostly referred as the compression fractures of vertebral column. This weakens the bones and hence the possibilities of getting fractures are more .If back pain continues for 6 weeks or less it’s referred as acute. If this continues for less than 12 weeks it is described as sub-acute. It’s termed as chronic if it persists for more than 3 months.
Diagnosis is helped by blood tests and scan but not to a greater extent and X rays are not advised due to high radiation. Muscle strain heals quickly as the blood supply is good and carries the needed nutrients with proteins for healing. Bed rest is advised for severe pain but not for two days or more. Hot or cold application eases the pain to a certain extent. People who are active with good physique can avoid low backache, as there will be regular stretch of muscles. The supporting muscles of the spine are extensors, which include back and gluteal muscles, Flexors, which comprise abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the last one is the side muscles also called as rotators. It’s also referred as Obliques .Not all these muscles are used in day-to-day life and they get weakened with age.
Lower backache exercise program should combine stretching and strengthening exercises with aerobics. Common symptoms of lower back pain for people less than 60 year old will be pain in legs or numbness and pain during movement and sitting. Older people will have symptoms like increase of back pain during the morning g and evening periods with stiffness in the back and. pain is also felt downwards in the legs. Psychological reasons play main role on pain levels and so person’s attitude and situation plays an active role.
Neurological symptoms like weakening, feeling of numbness or tingling sometimes accompany pain. Immediate attention is needed if there is a dysfunction in bladder or in the bowel and weakness or numbness in the groin.
Precautions like avoidance of stress and maintaining proper weight with regular exercise help in eliminating the problems of lower back pain.